What is Beam? What are different Types of Beams

beam is a structural member used for  bearing loads and used for resisting vertical loads, shear forces and bending moments.

Its mainly used for constructing bridges , flyovers, Trusses and other structure which carry vertical load.

Different types of beam

According to end support:

1. Simply Supported Beam:

As the name says, simply supported beam is supported at both end. One end of the beam is supported by roller support and other one by hinge support. This type of support allow to horizontal movement of beam. This type of beam undergoes both shear stress and bending moment.

simply supported beam

2. Continuous Beams:

This type of  beam is similar to simply supported beam only except more than two support are used on it. One end of it is supported by roller support and other one is hinged support. One or more supports are use between these beams. This type of beam used in long concrete bridges where length of bridge is too large.

continous beam

3. Overhanging Beams:

Combination of simply supported beam and cantilever beam is called overhanging beams. One or both of end overhang of this beam. This type of beam is supported by roller support between two ends. Overhanging beams has heritage properties of simply supported  and cantilever beam.

overhanging

4. Cantilever Beams:

Cantilever beams are a simple structure member of which one end is fixed and other is free. This type of beam is famous and use in trusses, bridges and other structure member. This type of beam undergoes both shear stress and bending moment.

cantilever beam

5. Fixed beams:

This type of beam is fixed from both ends. It does not allow rotational movement and vertical movement of the beam. This beam undergoes only shear stress and no moment produces in this beams. This type of beam used in trusses, and other structure.

fix ended beam

According to cross section:

A beam may have different cross section. The most common cross section of beam are as follow.

1. I beam:

This beam types have I cross section as shown in figure. It has high resistance of bending

I beam

2. T beam:

T beam

It has T cross section as shown in figure.

According to equilibrium condition:

1. Statically determinate beam:

A beam is called statically determinate beam if it can be analyze by the basic equilibrium condition. By using basic equilibrium condition support reaction can be found out. Equilibrium conditions  is nothing but the  Summation of all horizontal forces , vertical forces and Summation of all moments is zero. Example: Simply supported beam, Cantilever beam etc.

2. Statically indeterminate beam:

A beam is called statically indeterminate beam if it cannot be analyze by the basic equilibrium condition. The end reaction can be find out by using basic equilibrium condition with combination of other conditions like strain energy method, virtual work method etc.

Example: Continuous beam, fixed beam

According to Geometry:

  1. Straight beam
  2. Curved beam
  3. Tapper beam
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